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What we should do next 2.0 ?

(A)(1) Investigate with ground based systems miscibility of noble ullage gases with cryogenic LH2, LO2 and LCH4

(A)(2) investigate mixing of noble gas ullage with Cryogenic propellants over hours, days and  weeks

(B)(1) investigate in space liquefaction/fractionation machinery in conjunction with a zero boil off unit.

(B)(2) this machinery would be used to process gasses H2 and O2 out of noble ullage/ion propellant in hybrid chemical ion powered systems; investigate with ground based experiments a Liquid air fractionation unit

(B)(3) removal of noble elements out of LH2 and LO2 in the case of a chemical refueling of a hybrid powered stage

(C)(1) investigate with ground based experiments with removing Noble gasses from Nitrogen oxygen gases in the case of habitat’s being re-purposed as ion propellant tank.This is also done with an in space liquid air liquefaction/fraternization system. 


(D)(1) We need to use a ground based experiment to study of Noble gas ullage/Ion propellants with hypergolic propellants; If these behave better on longer term missions and behave better on miscible issues then Hyperbolic chemical/ion powered hybrid stages then we could in future do trades with cryogenic ion powered hybrids

(E)(1) The ground based Air liquefaction/fractionation unit leads the way to IRSU of rocks.Imagine the system at work on a landed hybrid propellent Xues/Centuat lander coupled to a Oxygen production system.

(F)(1) Air Liquefaction/Fractionation unit allows for the GH2/GO2/GCH4 in the propellent tanks to be separated from one another and fed to both The IVF and Ion propulsion systems since we envision that both systems are present and that both use the same propellent and oxidizer  tanks.

EDIT 16 March 2016

(G) (1) Does Noble element ice sink or float in cryogenic oxidisers or propellant? I think if large Noble element ice forms it sinks


Serially produced ice giant planetary probes and components

Serially produced ice giant planetary probes and components

(A)(1) conduct a unfunded RFP to ascertain cost engineering for flight spares beyond a two spacecraft buy for ice giant missions.flight spares are to be construed as spacecraft Bus and a docked ARRM derived SEP stage.

(A)(2) compete ARRM derived SEP for Mars MRO follow on and 4 more serially produced SEP for outer solar system missions.These are all government provided equipment to the AO not counted towards mission caps.(3) two providers build flight units for competition into the future.(A)(3) serially produce those items most sensitive to price drops due to serially production and a single contracted purchase,perhaps propellant tanks and the spacecraft bus structure itself would lend themselves to this.(A)(4) funding under a grand unified AO would purchase these lead items for a third and  fourth Ice Giant spacecraft;These spacecraft would likely become under sub competed AO’s to SBAG and ROW targets. This together with the serially produced COPAP atmospheric probes should answer 80 to 90 or better of minimum scientific goals as set by OPAG and SBAG communities.(A)(5) This purchasing formula together with a grand unified AO with follow on sub competed AO’s should also allow for follow-on missions back to Saturn and the Ice Giants with updated avionics and flight computers and science instruments.The 3rd and 4th Ice Giant spacecraft would observe a different set of SBAG/ROW targets and KBO targets after and during the prime missions.

COPAP; Common outer planet atmosphere probe are serially produced, build 5 for Jupiter, Saturn, Titan, Uranus, decadal survey order of preference is  Saturn, Uranus Neptune.

CACNCUR, Cryogenic ACES Neon cooled university ride share IR telescopes

PBOFTS, ?  I wrote this term at OPAG Feb 2017 but can not recall the meaning perhaps “Previously bought off the shelf”

“The Spider” 8 University IR rideshare telescopes mounted on the ACES or SLS forward Dome

“The Spider” 8 University IR rideshare telescopes mounted on the ACES or SLS forward Dome

This idea I have blogged about before but it was a part of the Cryogenic Neon expansion ratio battery series of posts, this will be a stand alone post and practice for submission to this years NIAC and Itech opportunities and if there is ever a second round of “cold tech”




The above paper describes well the power of Neon expansion ratios and the device described by Bonfait, Gregoire, et al. “40 K Liquid Neon Energy Storage Unit.” Physics Procedia (2015): 1-6. I am sure this type of system could also be cooled by LH2 propellant and generate electrical power and cool the proposed university IR telescopes proposed here.This might like the most ideas here are shared with those who twitter such as the ULA folks.

The OPAG Feb 2017 conference gave me further impetus on the idea that small University IR telescopes might be possible with long live Cryogenic propellant upper stages and could be integrated into the upper stage IVF system.GNe could be vented into the LH2 tank and would not react in the IVF combustion engine and vent the H2O exhaust and GNe to the O2 tank poor humans easy method of liquefaction/Fractionation.The idea here is at some future Depot you freeze the water out onto the tank walls and scavenge the Neon back out and recover the water by reheating the tank walls.Then reuse the upper stage.


The image depicted represents the eight eyes of the spider or 8 university IR telescopes mounted on the forward endcap of an upper stage as rideshares.The Cryogenic Neon used to cool them is in a tank inside the LH2 propellant tank.The first suggested target is Lunar south pole shaded craters.More challenging would be to get this system landed in those craters or the second target would be Mercury polar craters.

Common Evolved ARRM derived SEP docking system for planatary missions

Allow for Planetary orbiters and flyby mission designs that can feed spacecraft RTG electrical power through the docking mechanism to the SEP/NEP hybrid stage.

The spacecraft might be in partial hibernation during the cruise and can share the power to the docked SEP to augment its engines.At some point, the two can part ways and a smaller science payload remains with the SEP stage that now can devote all the power from the solar arrays to this mission.The light is dim way out here in the outer solar system so this idea should be looked into.

Distributed Decadal survey launch on HLLV’s

At OPAG 2017 it was suggested to me that SLS could loft an Ice giant mission with a venus probe delivered through a Venus flyby, this thought reminded me of my Grand Unified AO proposal.The difference here of course is you would propose an Ice Giant mission in the same time frame as a Venus Discovery AO or an AO Discovery AO for any decadal survey object of interest that matches the SLS manifest.This presents problems with funding for one-off venus probes or any other probe co-manifested on SLS.Perhaps

Perhaps concepts of serially produced Ice giant/Ocean world probes with costs distributed over a decade and a half could lower costs enough for a robust discovery program that launches with those probes. Except for Venus, it’s unlikely for this idea to work, my thoughts are that many Discovery class missions are in fact ride share with the Ice Giant Missions under my grand unified AO proposal. 




IRS Form 990T The ESOP owns with JPL/Caltech the JPL campus with a leveraged ESOP

IRS Form 990T The ESOP owns with JPL/Caltech the JPL campus with a leveraged ESOP; applicability to the Caltech/JPL campus

24 years ago I proposed that a public hospital could set up a for-profit entity that Public hospitals commonly do to sell in home health care or hospital equipment.My proposal was much more grandiose, it involved the public hospital setting up a for-profit subsidiary that would be owned by an ESOP.The ESOP would be a leveraged ESOP That borrows funds to purchase a majority of the public hospital’s assets to include buildings and operations.The public hospital would remain the operating entity and the trustee of the ESOP.The case I used was Erlanger Hamilton county hospital system of Chattanooga back in 1996.It is worth about $500 million and my plan as of 15 years ago would  be that the IRS would allow both a 203 B and a ESOP to coexist side by side only if the hospital placed the $500 million sale to the Leveraged ESOP into a 501 C research trust, this is a trust that is most familiar as the Howard Hughes research trust.


I thought to myself that this could work when I was listening to the talks at OPAG 2017 by Janet vertesi and Amanda Zangarari and  Louis Procter.long voyages by project team members who seek to share diversity  and leadership and science advancements together are better served by my ESOP model, and that would be that the private-public partnership model that is Caltech/JPL and NASA be expanded in a bold new significant way to include the employees of JPL and by extension any JPL AO mission scientists.

let me go through the Leveraged ESOP steps as for Erlanger case; The employer(JPL?) or (Caltech)sets up a for-profit subsidiary that is owned by the ESOP, the ESOP trustee borrows the amount needed to purchase most of the JPL campus and operations.This might be several $ Billions The ESOP pays down the loan with cash flows to JPL over 30 t0 50 years.The loan as its paid off becomes equity in the ESOP that the JPL employees own.We need to ask the IRS for a private letter ruling to allow the nonprofit local government 203 pension plans to continue and for the ESOP to be in place since both together will eventually produce contributions by the employer over the 20% maximum.

I propose society has an interest in allowing employees and employers to contribute more than 20% of income in cases where the purchase price goes into a 501C research ch institute, after all, I propose the research institute is also a related to the hospital or educational entity, or the research trust funds participating scientists program of its own.

What does this mean for a JPL or other entity AO?The employees on a JPL planetary mission would have ownership interests and JPL would have to adopt ESOP participations standards and democracy IE doesn’t abuse the ESOP ethic.The mission itself I think must adopt these ideas.a flagship mission cash flows pay down some of the leveraged dept contributing to the JPL capital that becomes equity in the JPL ESOP.

Can a NASA AO allow a NASA developed spacecraft to build a second spacecraft paid for by the JPL ESOP and leased for 30 years?

NASA leases an Ice Giant planetary mission from the JPL ESOP partnership and the mission scientists actually own the future mission

legalitys of spacecraft leasing and data purchase and FAR

The next blog entry will discuss more the grand unified AO and sub-AO’s

My OPEG 2017 proposal for a social contract between Planetary scientists “work aunts” for a future Ice Giant mission AO

I attended the OPAG 2017 conference in Atlanta Ga this week, where I was privileged to be able to ask questions of presenters and on one occasion to present an idea.The idea was inspired by the talk at OPAG 2017 of a resident OPAG sociologist who gave a talk on diversity that brought back thoughts I had when a UM-Flint Anthropology major.The “resident” OPAG sociologist talk was given by Janet Vertesi of Princeton(Diverse & Inclusive mission teams (NF-4 AO language)-How to achieve that goal).She discussed the dangers and harm to diversity goals on science missions if the minority is only 1 person(the “Token”) or harm if the minority groups to include Gender if their percentages are below 30% on a team.One of her many recommendations was to have men who have flown successful planetary missions to be good “work uncles” and to look after and watch out for tokenism and backlashes from others and to ensure that female and minority team members are allowed to develop as the mission advances.

My Hypothesis is however that there are females who have long been on these missions who are now in leadership positions who could become or are or have been “Work Aunts”and that these work aunts could propose to an AO a teaming arrangement that incorporates a leadership succession and sharing plan that accounts for a decade-long  planetary mission.leadership sharing is an idea inspired by a talk at OPAG 2017 given by Louis Procter entitled (participating scientist study) This topic is of interest to me because of my 4-decade long membership of the NCEO or National center of employee ownership, there we discuss employee empowerment and leadership as a part of and motivation for employee ownership.Here might be a connection and a subject worth studying in planetary science mission team building.It is also important for the work Aunts to be responsible for ensuring that males make up at least 30% of any spacecraft and instrument team.

How to build a social contract on an Ice Giant planetary mission?(and how to design a mission tour)

There was a talk by a graduate student Amanda Zangarari entitled “Giant planet-KBO flyby” This talk reflected past proposals such as ARGO that suggested giant planet and ice giants flybys could use gravitational assists to Centaurs and KBO’s.Zangari talk had images of cones of 60 degrees from Uranus and Neptune showing the range of targets that could be explored with ice giant flybys.

My response was to approach the mic and tell Ms. Zangarari that we might be kindred spirits, I mentioned I believe that utilizing spacecraft for as many objects of interest furthers the decadal survey process and goals except I asked her to consider the proposed two spacecraft ice giant missions and that she was now the principal investigator and that the Neptune orbital mission uses retrograde Triton to get to her chosen centaur/trojan/KBO**.This is, of course, would be the plan presented to the AO from before launch that the PI and other instrument PI will rotate over the course of the mission and this to honor thoughts from Procter, Vertesi, and Rappolee.

**my doodle of ice giant orbital escape utilizing satellites gravity assists (Okutsu) Ms. Amanda Zangarari came over to my seat and took a photograph of the first image which is the original.(should be retrograde for Triton)Ms.Zangarari’s talk had 60-degree cones that reflect the energies of planetary flybys and velocity, my doodle might reflect smaller cones? Ms.Zangarari and I discussed that my version allows for satellites of ice giants to gravitational deflect spacecraft back from ice giants to centaurs inward towards Saturn(Chiron)

It should be an OPAG finding that Work Aunt and Uncles should incorporate ice giant escape from orbit to satisfy planetary quarantine requirements

For reference, the B plane I tried to draw for Triton is better viewed here with this image that Mr. Lasher (retired) gave me years ago.Mr. Lasher was astrodynamics specialist to the Voyager and pioneer programs with Dr. Stone.


Okutsu would replace Jupiter B-plane with Titan B-plane for his Cassini Saturn escape study okutsu_cassini_saturn_escape And we propose to the Nasa Planetary protection officer & OPAG & SBAG that Uranus & Neptune missions require a ballistic and or SEP escape from orbit in the event of a possible biotic condition discovery.Indeed we propose such trajectories be mandated for some proposed ocean worlds.I think this could be required on a weighted scale based on probability. Such studies should take on the “opportunity costs” of planetary impact VS additional targets.A “CubeSat” could do the ice giant core gravitational moment measurements.We simply do not know if there are more Enceladus’s out there.

I enjoy thinking about human space anthropology and archaeologyJupiter B plane astrodynamics image for visual learners

The ULA or (insert your company here) Funded leveraged ESOP feasibility study to create new customers ( the new customer spin off)

The ULA or(insert your company here) Funded leveraged ESOP feasibility study to create new customers ( the new customer spin-off). ULA funds a Leveraged ESOP feasibility on behalf of terrestrial & cislunar exploration technologies to purchase Delta IV LH2 propellant tanks outfitted as space stations

These LH2 propellant tanks would initially  be  white tail tanks.

Most likely these Delta IV LH2 propellant tanks would be lofted by Vulcan launchers do to costs and possibly to reduce the height of the vehicle, this would require an adapter to the core Vulcan stage.We have asked ULA to assit us in using or modifying the New ULA rocket builder to make a case for this.

Use of a ULA ACES as a cryocooler for IR CubeSat space telescopes utilizing a Neon expansion ratio battery

Use of a ULA ACES as a cryocooler for IR CubeSat space telescopes utilizing a Neon expansion battery


A new paper we have found gives insight into the power of cryogenic Neon expansion ratios,

Martins, D., Borges P. de Sousa, I. Catarino, and G. Bonfait. “40 K Liquid Neon Energy Storage Unit.” Physics Procedia. 67 (2015): 1193-1198.

(A)(1) use the Cryogenic Xenon thermal Battery to cool CubeSat IR telescopes held in a Ring or other cube sat deployment mechanism with the exception that they would remain attached to the upper stage.

(A)(2) The Cryogenic Thermal battery would be cooled at first by ACES LH2 propellent; Cryogenic Neon expansion gas expelled to ACES LH2 tank after LH2 exhaustion.(3)ULA ACES internal combustion engine redesigned to burn GH2 and GO2 with Neon and other Noble gas contaminants with H2O exhausted back with the Neon into the ACES propellant tanks to freeze out for later resource utilization See here and for possible Neon reuse without H2O contamination the Neon thermal battery See here,(4) thermal expansion battery also might produce its own electricity by expanding the gas through an impeller or turbine or Stirling engine(5) solar arrays allow us to bank the gases H2 and O2 for internal combustion engine for planetary and lunar shadow.

(B)(1) Many space telescopes CubeSats with cryogenic cooling brings this capability to the university level investigation and a first target could be the lunar poles.

Golf Course Sugar Maple “polyculture”

Golf Course Sugar Maple “polyculture”

The USDA does not subsidize Maple syrup or maple wood products and more importantly does not keep Sugar maple trees in its botanical collections

The University of Cornell in New York state does have a Sugar Maple experiment station with a botanical collection.Our idea is that the university in all Sugar Maple producing states could set up university golf courses for students and staff that would generate revenue and host sugar maple experiment stations and this could be a model for other university agricultural experiment stations.Are there for example agricultural experiments for the grasses?(yes) could we incorporate prairie grasses as traps in a golf course?

Phase 2 RPS RFP Air Force EELV synergies with reusable/recoverable SSME/RS-25 and other engine manufacters

the post is made without using any information in the  Phase 2 RPS RFP Bidder’s Library, and only uses information that is in the public domain and ideas from previous posts from this blog

My company signed an NDA to this effect not to disclose anything to be found there, I am hoping however that the bidders list and contractors Q & A forms might become public in some form with the permission of the Air Force and those contractors some day as those are a teachable moment for students  and the public.

So the blog posts here have to do with synergies between government agency’s(NASA and AF/DOD NRO) and perhaps the international ISS partners who might have an  American subsidiary here in America.

The Air Force wants products that can withstand the commercial marketplace and the earlier draft RPS talked of synergy’s with other government customers so that the thought that occurs to us is that the RPS RFP has Congressional mandated language in regards to our Russian ISS partners, it does not have language that prohibits European contractors

ULA  and Ariane space have proposed methods to recover engines from first stages, SpaceX also proposes to recover the first stage and the air force requires that any bidder shares this with all providers.

We think that the Europeans could build their winged fly-back the vehicle in both the unites states and Europe and recover the SSME/RS-25 and their engine from their launch vehicle.We would need a winged flyback vehicle to recover a two SSME engine core EELV. An SLS strap On? if this was a 3 SSME engine core CBC might not be recoverable by air as ULA suggests and would require the winged lander.

We contend along with the white house that a kerosene engine without a launch vehicle warrants a veto threat, it should be noted the RFP will not consider such a proposal in any event.So lets examine this idea, If the air force wants to share of the product you would want to submit separate bids for your launcher and engine, The engine must be sold to all your launch vehicle not so….

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