(A)(1) Investigate with ground based systems miscibility of noble ullage gases with cryogenic LH2, LO2 and LCH4
(A)(2) investigate mixing of noble gas ullage with Cryogenic propellants over hours, days and weeks
(B)(1) investigate in space liquefaction/fractionation machinery in conjunction with a zero boil off unit.
(B)(2) this machinery would be used to process gasses H2 and O2 out of noble ullage/ion propellant in hybrid chemical ion powered systems; investigate with ground based experiments a Liquid air fractionation unit
(B)(3) removal of noble elements out of LH2 and LO2 in the case of a chemical refueling of a hybrid powered stage
(C)(1) investigate with ground based experiments with removing Noble gasses from Nitrogen oxygen gases in the case of habitat’s being re-purposed as ion propellant tank.This is also done with an in space liquid air liquefaction/fraternization system.
(D)(1) We need to use a ground based experiment to study of Noble gas ullage/Ion propellants with hypergolic propellants; If these behave better on longer term missions and behave better on miscible issues then Hyperbolic chemical/ion powered hybrid stages then we could in future do trades with cryogenic ion powered hybrids
(E)(1) The ground based Air liquefaction/fractionation unit leads the way to IRSU of rocks.Imagine the system at work on a landed hybrid propellent Xues/Centuat lander coupled to a Oxygen production system.
(F)(1) Air Liquefaction/Fractionation unit allows for the GH2/GO2/GCH4 in the propellent tanks to be separated from one another and fed to both The IVF and Ion propulsion systems since we envision that both systems are present and that both use the same propellent and oxidizer tanks.
EDIT 16 March 2016
(G) (1) Does Noble element ice sink or float in cryogenic oxidisers or propellant? I think if large Noble element ice forms it sinks
Spectrum of Tholin fragments in abrasion of H2O/CH4 ices into Dunes
This is the Earthbound version but my question pertains to Titan and other outer planet objects with atmospheres https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Factors_of_polymer_weathering
(A) The mechanically and solar irradiated Tholin fragments would be on the surface of the windblown dune particle?
- Trucking company borrows capital to purchase automated driverless trucks and vans, many trucking companies allow their employees and subcontractors to own more than one vehicle (which they drive) This ESOP would eventually become 100 % ESOP owned with leased trucks from the human drivers. What would be the legality of unemployed drivers owning an ESOP?
- could the ESOP incorporate a permeant unemployment benefit as a benefit?
- possibly the answer is that the drivers would report to work at least 1 hour per week to remain employees under ERISA and many states allow long term partial unemployment.
- We could incorporate state laws on public benefit for profit incorporation laws to bolster our unemployed truck driver ESOP
The ESOP is a leveraged one so the cash flow from the loans would buy automated driverless tractor trailers. The ratio of 10 driver leased trucks per employee over time means that the company grows its fleet aqnd over time all former employees would own the number of trucks to make a living without working or using the ESOP and the driverless trucks to create a guaranteed income.This philosophy could be written for the public benefit for-profit corporation goals.
Neptune orbiter and lander augmented by a cryogenic Neon expansion gas battery generator
The battery is powered by ground launch electrical power and replenishment and LH2/LO2 or LCH4 boil off. During cruise to Uranus &/or Neptune ZBO and/or boil off keeps the cryogenic Neon in liquid form. This mission design mostly closely follows the TOP mission proposal 1 (Mustafi). The TOP mission design has an ambitious goal of ZBO for LH2 and LO2 for 81/2 years to Saturn/Titan polar orbit insertion.Its interesting Mustafi does not cite Bennard Kutter or any of the ULA XBO papers.
Many Triton lander studies postulate that there may not be enough power or delta-v for a long-lived lander.
Many Triton lander studies postulate that there may not be enough power or delta-v for a long-lived lander(Campagnola)or any lander at all. Recent studies by the OPAG & Ice Giant Science Definition Team and JPL Ice Giant Study Teams suggest Neptune orbiters with gravity assist Triton flybys (Mark Hofstadter) I disagree with the team over the following remarks; “Dual-planet mission of interest because of its high science value, but not considered for next study due to expected high cost”. This statement would not make sense if NASA HQ has announced that a flagship Ice Giants mission might involve two spacecraft. Another short sightedness by the Ice Giant Science Definition Team and JPL Ice Giant Study Teams is that TOF from Saturn to Uranus for purely ballistic missions using Titan gravity assist is 23 years as shown by Okutsu and The Europeans have suggested a Saturn Probe with flyby to Uranus with the carrier spacecraft. These types of studies or options are lacking in the Hofstadter report. It should be pointed out that the Saturn Atmosphere probe is on the decadal survey priority list for new frontiers missions. Having said that a Saturn Probe with a Uranus flyby or an orbiter are most likely beyond the cost caps of the New frontiers program. This gap needs explaining and brigading.
RTG’s and solar power may be in short supply this far out, Solar arrays inwards of 5 AU or more have made a contribution to ZBO of our LH2 or LCH4 in the SEP/Chemical stage. We have modified the TOPS proposal to extend out to Uranus and Neptune. RTG’s being in short supply could make for a trade with our proposed cryogenic Neon Battery as a last minute power source for what may be a short-lived lander.Decadal survey science goals for the Neptune system are stated here (Marley)
We propose to study the mass and physics of a cryogenic tank under pressure of Neon and to utilize its gas expansion ratio to power a turbine or sterling engine. The energy potential has been stored since launch by ground power and replenishment and by ZBO and LH2 or LCH4 boil off since launch. The battery depletes itself once the power source is shut off from keeping the pressure and temps down. If the mission design calls for a lightweight short-lived lander the Neon potential energy could be transfer to the lander or trades could have the Neon onboard the lander. How much thrust would a Neon expansion ratio provide to a cold gas thruster after running an electrical power system? Without the cold gas thruster system how much power can be generated out at Neptune by a fresnal lens and a Neon or noble gas sterling motor system? So many trades! We have attempted to find the citation for the Triton Hopper without success.
Campagnola, Stefano, et al. “Mission design for the exploration of Neptune and Triton.” IEEE Aerospace and Electronic Systems Magazine (2015): 6-17. <http://issfd.org/ISSFD_2014/ISSFD24_Paper_S6-1_campagnola.pdf>.
Mark Hofstadter, Amy Simon, Kim Reh, John Elliott. “Ice Giant Mission Study Status Briefing to OPAG.” LPI,USRA.EDU, 2016. 14 Sept 2016. <http://www.lpi.usra.edu/opag/meetings/aug2016/presentations/day-2/Hofstadter.pdf>.
Marley, M., et al. “Planetary Science Decadal Survey JPL Rapid Mission Architecture Neptune-Triton-KBO Study Final Report.” NASA Mission Concept Study Report.” 2010. <http://www.lpi.usra.edu/icegiants/documents_presentations/App%20G%2024_Neptune-Triton-KBO.pdf>.
Mustafi, S., et al. “Cryogenic propulsion for the Titan Orbiter Polar Surveyor (TOPS) mission.” Cryogenics 74 (2016): 81-87. (2016): 81-87. <http://ntrs.nasa.gov/archive/nasa/casi.ntrs.nasa.gov/20150018322.pdf>.
1 Mustafi, S., et al. “Cryogenic propulsion for the Titan Orbiter Polar Surveyor (TOPS) mission.” Cryogenics 74 (2016): 81-87.
The Niac proposal summary is here; Summary
Habitats,payloads,inflatable hypersonic decelerators inflated or pressurized with Noble gasses to augment ion electric propulsion engines. In space stages, chemical propellant tanks pressurized with Noble gasses in a novel hybrid SEP/Chemical stage
Noble gas augmented habitats allows for preposition greater mass in planetary orbits(Mars) and planetary probes with noble gas inflated hypersonic decelerators augments Ion propellants for ice giant probes allowing for enhanced maneuvers in orbit IE plane changes at Uranus from polar to equatorial.
Cryogenic Neon provides for a possibility of an expansion ratio “battery” for Ice Giant planetary probes
- In the NTR database, there are hybrid Chemical/SEP in space stages study’s going back 25 years. In none of these has there been a study utilizing Noble gasses as both chemical stage pressurizer and SEP propellant. In none of those are cryogenic Noble gasses proposed
- We propose physics and chemical simulated software studies of noble gas as cryogenic and storable propellant pressurizers and SEP propellant(solubility problems). Interesting that recent Titan atmospheric and geological evolution studies also study noble gas and hydrocarbon solubility in Methane, we can contribute to this database
NASA and the National Bureau of standards have over 50 years funded software simulation models to model the physics of noble gasses, their Binary’s at triple points, solubility, vapor-liquid phase equilibria. These could find a sweet spot Noble gas Binary to act both as chemical tank pressurizer and SEP propellant.
in an NIAC-phase 1 study where a sweet spot fails to close then Neon or Neon Helium binary’s could be mixed with Xenon from a docked habitat and a SEP stage hybrid and habitat payload stack. Xenon and Argon in themselves are most likely poor choices as pressurizers in chemical tanks but they could be mixed with Neon/Helium Binary’s and shunted to a Xenon engine fed by the habitat.
ISP and weights of the stack can then be notionally modeled to look for trajectories and mass delivered to destinations. We believe the Hybrid stage and the Noble gas augmented habitat might have to work as one system.
Xenon gas Pressurized habitat’s as SEP stage augmented propellant tanks for prepositioning and radiation shielding
We propose to pressurize existing and proposed habitats of all sizes to Include Skylab-II, Cislunar habitats, cycler habitats, Inflatables (Bigelow) The ISS and Planetary orbital habitat’s with Xenon or other Binaries of Noble gasses to augment the propellant mass of SEP stages. Habitats could also house Xenon gas under greater pressure in Propellant tanks that also serve as radiation protection. An example would be the ISS, in 2028 you could de-crew the ISS and the interior volume of the ISS would take 7 tons of Xenon to replace air. An AARM derived SEP tug with 11 tons of Xenon would dock with ISS to bring the ISS to a salvage/storage orbit (Herman).Additionally the ISS could be outfitted with Xenon tanks in one or more of its segments. The SLS derived Skylab-II would have an 8.4-meter diameter and the ARRM Xenon tank is 60 centimeters in diameter so we could have 14 of these around the inner circumference of the Skylab-II. 14 times X 1,300 Kg of Xenon = 18,200 Kg of xenon! The ARRM Xenon tanks at 305 centimeters with two rows (28 tanks) would take up to 610 CM of Xenon tanks. Skylab-II at 11.15 meters could handle two rows of tanks or 36,400 Kg of Xenon (Herman). The ARRM derived tug has its 10,000 Kg of Xenon so this totals out to 46,400 Kg. Habitats and SEP stages. Planetary probes could also inflate with Xenon Hypersonic atmospheric decelerators(NIAD) to enable orbit insertion “Xe-NIAD”.
SLS LH2 Tank is 130 feet in length & 8.3 meters’ diameter made with 5 barrels so 30 feet per barrel so we propose a much larger Skylab-II placed into LEO. This vehicle could have 72,800 Kg of Zenon in 56 tanks. LEO to Cislunar space and beyond would be the job of a AARM derived vehicle with its augmented payload of Xenon. The SLS first stage is 212 feet high so lofting an empty LH2 tank as a space station would give us a launch vehicle 342 feet high. The LH2 tank is 2,032 cubic meters. This study states that 40 feet of a traditional metal tank weighs 6,764 Lbs. (Ivanco) So by extrapolation The SLS LH2 tank at 130 feet should be at 130/40 = 3.25 & 3.25 X 6,764 Lbs. yields 21,984 lbs. or just short of 10 Mt(?).Extrapolate Xenon Propellant tanks inside this vehicle. These habitats are also possibly Noble gas depots.
Trades and mission design & trajectory’s of SEP propellant augmented habitats
Proposed to be done by NASA Glenn COMPASS team, we assume one of the ARRM derived spacecraft docked to the SEP propellants augmented habituates. Needs study of SEP transfer lines and connections. A SLS LH2 tank in LEO at 40 Mt and 30 Mt Xenon onboard enables Skylab-II MAX when a ARRM derived SEP docks with it with its 10 Mt Xenon. ISS delivered to a grave yard/salvage at LDRO orbit takes 20 Mt Xenon installed onboard ISS and a ARRM docked with it. A de crewed and de gassed ISS can hold 8 Mt of Xenon in its modules at 1 ATM. Methods for proposed NIAC Phase 1 Hybrid SEP Chemical in space stage and an in space Liquefaction/Fractionation Unit; This unit separates gases O2, H2, Xe and Ne from one another for shunting to ULA’s proposed IVF engine and the SEP engine in our proposed hybrid stage.
We can use numerical modeling software designed to model chemical and physics of Noble gases and their Binaries in reaction to their proposed use as pressurizers with cryogenic and storable propellants and oxidizers. Surprisingly very little work has been done here in the last 60 years in regards to anything other than helium as the tank pressurizer. Much work has been done on Noble gases and their Binaries as interesting objects of low temperature physics and as enablers of astronomical and physics experiments. Wang & Sadus report cryogenic Helium as well as Neon show quantum affects at their vaper fluid interface (Wang)Wang & Sadus researched Binaries of Argon and Krypton. We propose to Niac Phase 1 that the work of Hibbard from 1968 is compelling in the use of Neon with LCH4 (Hibbard).We propose to Niac that we repurpose and reuse Noble gasses as pressurizers and propellant’s and as such we would not want a noble gas that has high rates of miscibility in the oxidizer or propellant yet at the same time we look for a good candidate as an ion propellant. We also propose to study the physics of the other Noble gasses in contact with Cryogenic and storable propellants and oxidizers. Do they form ice? Most likely. Neon is a good choice(?) but it’s not the ideal SEP propellant. We propose to NIAC phase 1 that physics and chemistry modeling programs be used to model Noble Gas Binaries to look for sweet spots for duel use noble gas presserent/SEP propellants. Would a Neon Argon Binary be a better candidate? (Nasrabad)How would Noble gas and Binary’s behave when pressurizing LH2 Gels? (Palaszewski)We believe a cryogenic Methane Hydrogen gel might behave well with a Neon or neon Binary propellant tank pressurizer, Vander Wall elaborates on Methane and other Hydrocarbons as colloids in LH2 (Vander Wall)The in space Liquefaction/Fractionation Unit is used to separate gases H2,O2,Xe from one another in the chemical stage tanks, We propose a hybrid Xues lander that uses it for ISRU.
Xenon Neon binaries as dual use pressurants & SEP propellants
A Neon Nitrogen Binary for example lowers the triple point of Nitrogen so it can be of better use in accelerators (de Sousa)In NIAC phase 1 we should look for Binaries with Xenon the SEP propellant of choice and Neon and Helium the cryogenic propellant pressurizer of choice.We propose NASA Glenn COMPASS team to use the software programs that model noble gas and binaries triple points and propellant oxidizer interface *****Trades with use of Neon only in hybrid stage and transfer of Neon to be mixed with Xenon from the AARM derived stage & augmented habitat. Here we come full circle, both architectures are meant to work together in whole or in part which is yet another trade space (Cha)This trade would elevate the need for an ideal binary for the chemical stage. Again the fallback study is shunting hybrid stage noble gas to a Xenon engine and then mixing the Propellants. This would result in a Neon/Xenon Binary SEP propellant.
SEP propellant dual use with inflatable supersonic inflatable decelerators and the proposed Cryogenic Neon Battery (and Iodine option)
Deep space probes and habitats alike could benefit from inflatable atmospheric decelerators(HIAD), what are the trades to duel use of SEP propellants to perform the mission of inflation? A habitat could go into an equatorial orbit about Mars saving propellants with a decelerator and run the SEP engines off Xenon in the spent inflatable into a polar orbit or some other destination. The Uranus probe could use this SEP propellant to maneuver from a polar Juno type orbit into a Moons plane mission as has been suggested for the next Mars orbiter mission (Zurek). We Propose a NIAC study of a AARM derived Uranus or Neptune probe with additional Xenon to inflate the decelerator. This duel use may be the happy sweet spot in the case of Uranus who’s Moons orbital plane requires the ISP. All study’s point to a decelerator at Neptune as well so NIAC Phase-1 would do trades on the non-inflatable decelerators and the inflatable ones with the caveat that we use Xenon to inflate. Many (HIADs) studies could be repurposed to the use of Noble gas as pressurizer and to model volume and ISP of the gas (Lyle) (Del Corso) (Bodkin) (Johnson) (Swanson) (Majumdar)in this Niac Phase -1 proposal, Trade space with these EDL ideas (Venkatapathy).We propose to model in NIAC phase -1 Xenon inflated NIAD for our proposed Xenon pressurized Habitats for planetary orbit insertion and subsequent SEP maneuvering(Xe-NIAD).
Ground-based facilities keep cryogenic battery cold, LH2 boil-off keeps cold, expansion to gas of Neon generates electricity to spacecraft or lander at destination. One Proposal draws on NASA Glenn long term storage of LH2/LO2 for planetary missions (Mustafi).Iodine solids in a colloid mixed with Cryogenic Neon provides an opportunity to share tank mass with two propellants. This calls for the need to model Neon/Iodine Xenon binary’s/Colloids as propellant (Polzin).
(A) SEP propellant dual purposed as chemical stage tank pressurizer. (B)SEP propellant dual purposed as habitat inflated or habitat pressurizer (SEP propellant augmentation) or use of Tanks in habitat (C) SEP propellant dual purposed as space probe, habitat, inflatable hypersonic decelerator inflator gas(D) Cryogenic Neon as a battery utilizing the Neon expansion ratio to generate electricity: Neon to SEP engine (E) Possibly Neon Battery expansion ratio provides modest thrust to EDL to a Triton or Titan lander (cold gas thruster)
NIAC Phase -1 experiment protocol
Noble gases as a pressurizer for oxidizers and propellants can be experimentally simulated (Tchouar) So we believe the simulation of Cryogenic Neon under pressure evaporating to gas and driving a turbine for electrical generation is possible to model by NASA Glenn Compass team. Mass, ISP and trajectory trades for Noble gas augmented & repurposed habitats, payloads, hybrid in space stages, Noble gas inflated hypersonic decelerators. These can be compared to existing COMPASS mission designs for planetary missions as well as existing study’s for HEFT that examine human crewed and human tended habitats at Cislunar and Mars orbit. We believe our novel concepts will trade well with existing ideas, the habitat augmented with Xenon pressurized tanks is deceptively simple it should be modeled. The Binary Noble chemical tank pressurizer SEP dual use and the Xenon inflated NIAD planetary probe and Cryogenic Neon Battery electrical generator are deceptively complex, are they really? NIAC-phase-1 is the ideal platform to carry out this enquiry.
Bodkin, Richard J., et al. “Bodkin, Richard Gas Generators and Their Potential to Support Human-Scale HIADS (Hypersonic Inflatable Aerodynamic Decelerators.” (n.d.). http://ntrs.nasa.gov/archive/nasa/casi.ntrs.nasa.gov/20160010176.pdf
Cha, Eunsun, M. A. Cappelli, and E. Fernandez. “Cha, Eunsun, M. A. Cappelli, and E. FeHybrid Simulations of Hall Thrusters Operating on Various Propellants.” Proc. 31st Int. Electr. Propuls. Conf (2009). <http://erps.spacegrant.org/uploads/images/images/iepc_articledownload_1988-2007/2009index/IEPC-2009-075.pdf>.
de Sousa, P. Borges, and G. Bonfait. “Contribution to the study of neon-nitrogen mixtures at low temperatures.” IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering (2015). <http://iopscience.iop.org/article/10.1088/1757-899X/101/1/012121/pdf>.
Del Corso, Jospeh A., et al. “Hypersonic Inflatable Aerodynamic Decelerator Ground Test Development.” 2015 (n.d.). <http://ntrs.nasa.gov/archive/nasa/casi.ntrs.nasa.gov/20160006468.pdf>.
Herman, Daniel A., et al. “The Ion Propulsion System for the Solar Electric Propulsion Technology Demonstration Mission.” (2015).https://ntrs.nasa.gov/archive/nasa/casi.ntrs.nasa.gov/20150023082.pdf
Hibbard, Robert R., and Albert Evans. “On the solubilities and rates of solution of gasses in liquid methane.” (1968). <http://ntrs.nasa.gov/archive/nasa/casi.ntrs.nasa.gov/19680020605.pdf>.
Ivanco, Marie L., et al. “Cost-Benefit Analysis for the Advanced Near Net Shape Technology (ANNST) Method for Fabricating Stiffened Cylinders.” (2016).
Johnson, R. Keith, et al. “HIAD Advancements and Extension of Mission Applications.” IPPW-13. n.d. <http://ntrs.nasa.gov/archive/nasa/casi.ntrs.nasa.gov/20160010254.pdf>.
Lyle, Karen H. “LylComparison of Analysis with Test for Static Loading of Two Hypersonic Inflatable Aerodynamic Decelerator Concepts.” (2015). <http://ntrs.nasa.gov/archive/nasa/casi.ntrs.nasa.gov/20150017044.pdf>.
Majumdar, A. K., et al. “Generalized fluid system simulation program, Version 6.0.” 2016. <https://ntrs.nasa.gov/archive/nasa/casi.ntrs.nasa.gov/20160005401.pdf>.
Mustafi, S., et al. “Cryogenic propulsion for the Titan Orbiter Polar Surveyor (TOPS) mission.” Mustafi, S., et al. “Cryogenic propulsion for the Titan Orbiter Polar Surveyor (TOPS) mission.” Cryogenics 74 (2016): 81-87. (2016): 81-87. <http://ntrs.nasa.gov/archive/nasa/casi.ntrs.nasa.gov/20150018322.pdfhttp://ntrs.nasa.gov/archive/nasa/casi.ntrs.nasa.gov/20150018322.pdfhttp://ntrs.nasa.gov/archive/nasa/casi.ntrs.nasa.gov/20150018322.pdf>.
Nasrabad, A., Laghaei, R. and Deiters, U. “Prediction Of The Thermophysical Properties Of Pure Neon, Pure Argon, And The Binary Mixtures Neon-Argon And Argon-Krypton By Monte Carlo Simulation Using Ab Initio Potentials.” (Nasrabad, AE, R Laghaei, and U Deiters. “Prediction Of The Thermophysical Properties Of Pure Neon, Pure Argon, And The Binary Mixtures 2004).http://www.uni-koeln.de/deiters/publ/JCP_NeArKr.pdf
Palaszewski, B. “Gelled Liquid Hydrogen: A White Paper.” 1997. <http://www.grc.nasa.gov/WWW/Fuels-And-Space-Propellants/GELLED.htm>.
Polzin, Kurt A., et al. “Hardware in the Loop Testing of an Iodine-Fed Hall Thruster.” 2015. <https://ntrs.nasa.gov/archive/nasa/casi.ntrs.nasa.gov/20150016488.pdf>.
Swanson, Greg, et al. “Swanson, GregManufacturing Challenges and Benefits when Scaling the HIAD Stacked-Torus Aeroshell to a 15m-Class System.” n.d. <http://ntrs.nasa.gov/archive/nasa/casi.ntrs.nasa.gov/20160004677.pdf>.
Tchouar, N., M. Benyettou, and F. Ould Kadour. “Tchouar, N., M. BThermodynamic, structural and transport properties of Lennard-Jones liquid systems. A molecular dynamics simulations of liquid helium, neon, methane and nitrogen.” Tchouar, N., M. Benyettou, and F. Ould Kadour. “Thermodynamic, structural and transport properties of Lennard-Jones liquid systems. A molecular International Journal of Molecular Sciences (2003). <http://www.mdpi.com/1422-0067/4/12/595/htm>.
Vander Wall, E. M. “Carbon Compounds/Liquid Hydrogen Fuels, Final Report.” 1971. <http://ntrs.nasa.gov/archive/nasa/casi.ntrs.nasa.gov/19710004942.pdf>.
Venkatapathy, Ethiraj, et al. “Venkatapathy, EthirajDevelopment Challenges of Game-Changing Entry System Technologies From Concept to Mission Infusion.” 2016. <http://ntrs.nasa.gov/archive/nasa/casi.ntrs.nasa.gov/20160003106.pdf>.
Wang, L. and Sadus, R. “Effect Of Three-Body Interactions On The Vapor-Liquid Phase Equilibria Of Binary Fluid Mixtures.” Wang, Liping and Richard Sadus. “Effect Of Three-Body Interactions On Th The Journal of Chemical Physics ( 2016.): Wang, Liping and Richard Sadus. “Effect Of Three-Body Interactions On The Vapor-Liquid Ph 125.7 http://www.swinburne.edu.au/ict/success/cms/documents/publications/2006/jcpV125Yr2006a.pdf
Zurek, Richard. “Objectives for Mars Orbital Missions in the 2020s: Report from a MEPAG Science Analysis Group.” 2015 AGU Fall Meeting.” 2016. <http://mepag.nasa.gov/reports/NEX-SAG_draft_v29_FINAL.pdf>.
 Gibbs-Duhem Monte Carlo simulations are reported for the vapor-liquid phase coexistence of binary
argon + krypton mixtures at different temperatures (Wang & Sadus)
 Therefore, it appears that only neon, hydrogen, and helium can be used as pressurants
if liquefied natural gas is to be used in aircraft unless the gasses and liquid fuel are
separated by a barrier. (Hibbard)
 Gibbs ensemble Monte Carlo simulations were used to test the ability of intermolecular pair potentials derived ab initio from quantum mechanical principles, enhanced by Axilrod-Teller triple-dipole interactions, to predict the vapor-liquid phase equilibria of pure neon, pure argon, and the binary mixtures neon-argon and argon-krypton (Naserabad et al)
 Theoretical studies show that neon can influence the phase diagram of nitrogen,
lowering its triple-point temperature (Sousa et al)
 The prediction of thermodynamic properties of liquids and mixtures is still an issue of interest in simulation. The literature shows that these systems are widely investigated in both experimental and theoretical ways [1,2,3,4,5]. X-rays scattering of liquid methane near the triple point (90.7 K°) [6,7,8,9,10], and liquid nitrogen  were studied. Theoretically new simulations with path-integral formalism have been conducted to obtain thermodynamic
NIAC proposal summary
(A)We propose to pressurize existing and proposed habitats of all sizes to Include Skylab-II, Cislunar habitats, cycler habitats, Inflatables (Bigelow) The ISS and Planetary orbital habitat’s with Xenon or other Binaries of Noble gasses to augment the propellant mass of SEP stages.This could enable a SLS 130 foot long LH2 propellant tank in LEO or a Skylab-II MAX and transfer to L-2 and beyond with AARM derived SEP stage docked to exceptional large habitats.
(B)We Propose to Augment existing and proposed habitats of all sizes to Include Skylab-II, Cislunar habitats, cycler habitats, Inflatables (Bigelow) The ISS and Planetary orbital habitat’s with Xenon or other Binaries of Noble gasses to augment the propellant mass of SEP stages By utilizing Xenon or Binary Noble gases in pressurized tanks co-located inside the habitat
Both (A)(B) may be done together or separately,in the case of crew arrival the habitat is pressurised with air and the Xenon tanks empty or full serve as radiation protection
(C)An ARRM derived SEP stage docks with the augmented habitat and uses SEP propellant transfer from the habitat, conversely, a SEP stage can transfer Noble gas propellant to the habitats tanks so that the habitat can serve as a SEP propellant fuel depot and transfer vehicle
(D) we propose to use existing chemical and physics simulation programs to model Noble gasses and their binaries as to their suitability as presserants to Cryogenic chemical propellants and to find a sweets spot with dual use as a SEP propellent(Hybrid Stage).
(E) If (D) fails then the Best chemical stage Noble Gas pressurizer(Neon?) would simply be transported after chemical stage exhaustion to the SEP stage for Mixing with Xenon.We propose to model this possibility
(F) We propose to model utilizing dual use Noble gasses to inflate an NIAD or inflatable atmospheric decelerator with Noble gasses for planetary probes and habitats and to then use the inflation gas to perform orbital maneuvers.Uranus with its tilted moon system would benefit from NIAD and use the augmented noble gas to maneuver from a polar insertion science orbit to a moon science orbit.Conversely, the Noble gas is not augmented but instead replaces the weight of the existing proposed inflatables gas generator.We call this system Xe-NIAD.
Neptune would benefit from the Xe-NIAD with orbit insertion and SEP/RTG and after a Triton probe EDL , uses Triton gravity and SEP to maneuver into polar orbit science mission
(F) We propose a Cryogenic Neon “battery” This would be charged at Launch from Earth and cooled with ZBO and/or Hybrid stage LH2 or LCH4 boil off during cruise.At cryogenic propellant depletion, the Neon would expand and power a electrical generator.The Neon could also power a cold gas thruster on a Triton lander during EDL
(G) Neon Helium Binaries could cool space telescope instruments and provide electrical power with the binary expansion ratio during boil off.Binary cold gas could provide thrust/station keeping to space telescopes(three uses)
(H)Cryogenic Neon could also provide power to a Triton lander and provide a dual use cold gas thruster for a Triton hopper mission
the commonality in a design of Venus and Titan radar imaging, is it possible?
The issue for both would be differences in science data needed and of course the distance from the sun,Titan radar imager would need RTG heaters? A third challenge would be funding both missions close to one another.The answer to that might be to place on the shelf one of the radars for a future mission.
Composting deceased astronauts on planetary surfaces
Two methods are proposed 1 involves anaerobic and the other aerobic compost made from agricultural wastes.
Both methods produce different gasses that are beneficial or problematic to the atmosphere in the planetary outpost.Compost gas output is used for air,propellent and oxidizer.On mars its important to monitor garden refuse compost as to species to Atmosphere for health and harvest of compounds from the air for propellent and breathing.
Anaerobic and aerobic compost decomposition will vary output of atmospheric species. Plant and Animal remains also alter and very atmospheric outputs to the greenhouse atmosphere.
andersen_et_al-_ghg_emissions_from_composting_self_archive Our hypothesis is that a small outpost on mars with a small human population is mostly composting garden wastes with some input from human and small animal biosolids.Anderson et al demonstrate garden composting to produce specific atmospheric gases under specified conditions.next its important to know the effects of composting on animal parts in a garden compost.This would most closely approximate the question of composting human cadavers in this way.
Many of these research papers discuss the presence or destruction of Prions,pathogens and viruses in animal tissue in an organic plant material compost.
We think on a mars colony there would be the machinery for the production of cryogenic fluids for breathing and propellants and oxidizer and its these that provide an opportunity to freeze any deceased astronaut and to produce many small particulates for even distribution in a compost by shattering and grinding the remains to sand like consistency.This would allow a rapid aerobic decomposition.Nitrogen freezing and rapid decomposition of the small fragments would eliminate many of the concerns and inefficiencies of composting large objects mentioned in the research papers seen here.
ceremonial concerns could be met with a pit or shallow grave filled with compost and the planting of a tree, a fruit tree would provide that final test or experiment as to the presence of any pathogens transmitted from the compost to the fruit( seems extremely unlikely) The tree would be the marker for our fallen astronaut.I have always wondered what geometry and height a tree would grow to in reduced gravity.I took a Botany course at St Clair Community college in 2012 and my Parents were members of the Sierra Club in the 1940’s
The World Ship “Golden Gate” a rotating asteroid regolith reinforced with Cable cable-stayed bridge suspension from a central axis
(A)(1) Finding/hypothesis Hollowed out asteroids serving as world ships or habitats will have weakened regolith and interior and surface geology that will require reinforcement and transmission away from the rotating equator of centrifugal forces that would rupture a hollow rotation object.
(A)(2) The cable stays and anchors would transmit centrifugal stresses up to a zero gee end cap to end cap tube it self anchored.In apperence this would appear from an end cap to be a structure falling out of the sky that would look like a Golden Gate bridge in a swirl pattern finally meeting the ground or the interior(surface) of the world ship. (A)(3) There could be a roadway or carriage/elevator extending skyward from ground.
This idea was conceived in 2009/10 and has been shared with others since that time
The Commonwealth of the United Kingdom 2.0
(A)(1)Independent commonwealth states of Gibraltar ,Northern Ireland and Scotland would together OR with other commonwealth states share foreign relations and military and economic assistance.(2)This includes the nation-state of England should she chose to do so.
(A)(3) under article 50 the principles of self-determination set out in the articles of the outermost regions This means the OCT territory’s associated with an English nation-state would have common citizenship rights in the commonwealth of the united kingdom with Gibraltar, Northern Ireland and Scotland.Such a citizen would become an EU citizen while living in the commonwealth of the united kingdom but not when living in England.
(A)(4) If such rights exist under article 50 AND the OCT then how could it be that Scotland Northern Ireland and Gibraltar do not have such rights under article 50?Inside the Commonwealth of the United kingdom, England would be an outermost region of the EU and this way there can be a shared citizenship
(A)(5) as mentioned in the first commonwealth blog article the good Friday agreement gives the right of self-determination to Northern Ireland so under article 50 this should be reaffirmed but any such vote must give the choices of independence in commonwealth, reunion with Ireland, stay with England.It should be pointed out that here to England could agree that Northern Ireland could be an outermost territory still inside the EU but a part of England****
(B)(1) **** if you are going to do this then the question arises can the UK leave the EU and leave everyone else an outermost territory in the EU? If you did that under article 50 you are asking that the EU parliament to admit MEP from those “states”I think the UK as the legal representative cannot leave and do this I think under article 50 leads to independence votes held under article 50(2)Spain as veto powers and would block an independent EU member Gibraltar so Gibraltar could be that outermost region with Scotland or Northern Ireland or both.(3) if blocked by Spain the election that confers Scottish citizenship or UK commonwealth citizenship under the OCT to Gibraltar confers EU citizenship.
(B)(4) EU article 299 and EU articles 182-188 are the outermost regions OCT’s and EU special territories so we propose that the under article 50 the “commonwealth of the United kingdom” would be the successor states to the EU except for England.England would be the success state to the UN and NATO, however, the commonwealth would be a shared military affair.