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What we should do next 2.0 ?

(A)(1) Investigate with ground based systems miscibility of noble ullage gases with cryogenic LH2, LO2 and LCH4

(A)(2) investigate mixing of noble gas ullage with Cryogenic propellants over hours, days and  weeks

(B)(1) investigate in space liquefaction/fractionation machinery in conjunction with a zero boil off unit.

(B)(2) this machinery would be used to process gasses H2 and O2 out of noble ullage/ion propellant in hybrid chemical ion powered systems; investigate with ground based experiments a Liquid air fractionation unit

(B)(3) removal of noble elements out of LH2 and LO2 in the case of a chemical refueling of a hybrid powered stage

(C)(1) investigate with ground based experiments with removing Noble gasses from Nitrogen oxygen gases in the case of habitat’s being re-purposed as ion propellant tank.This is also done with an in space liquid air liquefaction/fraternization system. 


(D)(1) We need to use a ground based experiment to study of Noble gas ullage/Ion propellants with hypergolic propellants; If these behave better on longer term missions and behave better on miscible issues then Hyperbolic chemical/ion powered hybrid stages then we could in future do trades with cryogenic ion powered hybrids

(E)(1) The ground based Air liquefaction/fractionation unit leads the way to IRSU of rocks.Imagine the system at work on a landed hybrid propellent Xues/Centuat lander coupled to a Oxygen production system.

(F)(1) Air Liquefaction/Fractionation unit allows for the GH2/GO2/GCH4 in the propellent tanks to be separated from one another and fed to both The IVF and Ion propulsion systems since we envision that both systems are present and that both use the same propellent and oxidizer  tanks.

EDIT 16 March 2016

(G) (1) Does Noble element ice sink or float in cryogenic oxidisers or propellant? I think if large Noble element ice forms it sinks


The commonality in a design of Venus and Titan radar imaging, is it possible?

the commonality in a design of Venus and Titan radar imaging, is it possible?

The issue for both would be differences in science data needed and of course the distance from the sun,Titan radar imager would need RTG heaters? A third challenge would be funding both missions close to one another.The answer to that might be to place on the shelf one of the radars for a future mission.

Composting deceased astronauts on planetary surfaces

Composting deceased astronauts on planetary surfaces

Two methods are proposed 1 involves anaerobic and the other aerobic compost made from agricultural wastes.

Both methods produce different gasses that are beneficial or problematic to the atmosphere in the planetary outpost.Compost gas output is used for air,propellent and oxidizer.On mars its important to monitor garden refuse compost as to species to Atmosphere for health and harvest of compounds from the air for propellent and breathing.

Anaerobic and aerobic compost decomposition will vary output of atmospheric species. Plant and Animal remains also alter and very atmospheric outputs to the greenhouse atmosphere.

andersen_et_al-_ghg_emissions_from_composting_self_archive Our hypothesis is that a small outpost on mars with a small human population is mostly composting garden wastes with some input from human  and small animal biosolids.Anderson et al demonstrate garden composting to produce specific atmospheric gases under specified its important to know the effects of composting on animal parts in a garden compost.This would most closely approximate the question of composting human cadavers in this way.

Many of these research papers discuss the presence or destruction of Prions,pathogens and viruses in animal tissue in an organic plant material compost.



Composting: an alternative for livestock manure management and disposal of dead animals

We think on a mars colony there would be the machinery for the production of cryogenic fluids for breathing and propellants and oxidizer and its these that provide an opportunity to freeze any deceased astronaut and to produce many small particulates for even distribution in a compost by shattering and grinding the remains to sand like consistency.This would allow a rapid aerobic decomposition.Nitrogen freezing and rapid decomposition of the small fragments would eliminate many of the concerns and inefficiencies of composting large objects mentioned in the research papers seen here.

ceremonial concerns could be met with a pit or shallow grave filled with compost  and the planting of a tree, a fruit tree would provide that final test or experiment as to the presence of any pathogens transmitted from the compost to the fruit( seems extremely unlikely) The tree would be the marker for our fallen astronaut.I have always wondered what geometry and height a tree would grow to in reduced gravity.I took a Botany course at St Clair Community college in 2012 and my Parents were members of the Sierra Club in the 1940’s

The World Ship “Golden Gate” a rotating asteroid regolith reinforced with Cable cable-stayed bridge suspension from a central axis

The World Ship “Golden Gate” a rotating asteroid regolith reinforced with Cable cable-stayed bridge suspension from a central axis

(A)(1) Finding/hypothesis Hollowed out asteroids serving as world ships or habitats will have weakened regolith and interior and surface geology that will require reinforcement and transmission away from the rotating equator of centrifugal forces that would rupture a hollow rotation object.

(A)(2) The cable stays and anchors would transmit centrifugal stresses up to a zero gee end cap to end cap tube it self anchored.In apperence this would appear from an end cap to be a structure falling out of the sky that would look like a Golden Gate bridge in a swirl pattern finally meeting the ground or the interior(surface) of the world ship. (A)(3) There could be a roadway or carriage/elevator extending skyward from ground.

This idea was conceived in 2009/10 and has been shared with others since that time


The Commonwealth of the United Kingdom 2.0

The Commonwealth of the United Kingdom 2.0

(A)(1)Independent commonwealth states of Gibraltar ,Northern Ireland and Scotland would together OR with other commonwealth states share foreign relations and military and economic assistance.(2)This includes the nation-state of England should she chose to do so.

(A)(3) under article 50 the principles of self-determination set out in the articles of the outermost regions This means the OCT territory’s associated with an English nation-state would have common citizenship rights in the commonwealth of the united kingdom with Gibraltar, Northern Ireland and Scotland.Such a citizen would become an EU citizen while living in the commonwealth of the united kingdom but not when living in England.

(A)(4) If such rights exists under article 50 AND the OCT then how could it be that Scotland Northern Ireland and Gibraltar do not have such rights under article 50?Inside the Commonwealth of the United kingdom England would be  an outermost region of the EU and this way there can be a share citizenship

(A)(5) as mentioned in the first commonwealth blog article the good friday agreement gives the right of self-determination to Northern Ireland so under article 50 this should be reaffirmed but any such vote must give the choices of independence in commonwealth, reunion with Ireland, stay with england.It should be pointed out that here to England could agree that Northern Ireland could be an outermost territory still inside the EU but a part of England****

(B)(1) **** if you are going to do this then the question arises can the UK leave the EU and leave everyone else an outermost territory in the EU? If you did that under article 50 you are asking that the EU parliament to admit MEP from those “states”I think the UK as the legal representative cannot leave and do this I think under article 50 leads to independence votes held under article 50(2)Spain as veto powers and would block an independent EU member Gibraltar so Gibraltar could be that outermost region with Scotland or Northern Ireland or both.(3) if blocked by Spain the an election that confers Scottish citizenship or uk commonwealth citizenship under the OCT to Gibraltar confers EU citizenship.

(B)(4) EU article 299 and EU articles 182-188 are the outer most regions  OCT’s and EU special territories so we propose that the under article 50 the “commonwealth of the United kingdom” would be the succesr states to the EU except England.England would be the succser state to the UN and NATO however the commonwealth would be a shared military affiar.

Our entry for the Juno Imaging campaign

(A)(1) Image the Polar cloud tops at a angle towards the equator.

(A)(2) Attempt to image Almatha and other Moons over the equator, and the other moons.


Fissionable outer layer fusion micro capsule as a target for a standoff power beam weapons system


This URL is an early blog article about  ideas from as early as 2011 that I shared with the NIF facility at Livermore labs.An idea I with held from sharing publicly I shared with the NIF users group in the fall of last year,I received an interesting reply, the reply was a request not to submit the idea to the user groups channels.

This I found odd, The 10’s of Billions spent on NIF was for science but also to verify physics for the stockpile stewardship program.To be sure I proposed running the idea of fission/fusion micropellets through the NIF supercomputer as I am sure a highly enriched fissionable outer layer micropellet would contaminate the INF target chamber.

So what did I propose through the NIF users group that they found so objectionable? I am not sure they would not tell me.I suspect perhaps it was not fission/fusion micropellets in the NIF target chamber,I think it was the weapons system I proposed to them.My proposed weapons system is based on the fission/fusion micropellets as in space starship propellent systems.

Here is what I proposed, some delivery system strategic or tactical (local or long range delivery) places micropellet fission/fusion in a combat location.A local or long range asset with a power beam weapons system(Laser) fires and ignites the micropellets/ microcapsules.

I do not know what the trades are here? could a handheld laser ignite a fission/fusion micropellet? I think that unlikely.

Could a Bomber with a laser beamed weapon ignite a flock of micropellets from a standoff range of   hundreds of miles? (rain,fog,clouds)


A Proposed Hong Kong Foreign worker Nanny,Au per, housekeeper ESOP

A Proposed Hong Kong Foreign worker Nanny,Au per, housekeeper ESOP

Retains the surplus value of the labor of the foreign nanny,house keeper,au per for the future benefit of those workers.Needs a comprehensive knowldge of Hong Kong Coop employee ownership laws.

We propose that the city of Hong Kong and the enlightened employers would allow time for at least 1  university course per semester for each housekeeper, nanny.Both the city and the universitys as well as the ESOP would represent a pool of money and oppertunity so that the foreign household worker could achieve a two year degree in a 6 year period of employment.


Article 50 of the EU and The proposed Commonwealth of The United Kingdom

We the people of the United kingdom through Parliament and the people of the European Union through the European council and Parliament agree to hold referendums on independence for Scotland,Northern Ireland and Wales if  elected to do so.These referendums would be honored by the European Union through Article 50 as the right to EU membership  by newly independent succeeding states

The United Kingdom and the EU agree that the referendum should state “I vote yes or no to independence and EU membership” In Northern Ireland the ballot should read, “I vote for reunification”, “I vote for independence” “I vote to remain with the UK” A runoff election shall be held among the two highest vote results if there is not a 50% majority.Agreements allowing free movement of Peoples between Ireland and the UK shall continue and will be adopted by “Commonwealth of the United Kingdom” a proposed political entity(see below)   Northern Irish Voter opinion

The UK and the EU agree under article 50 that the referendum might result in independence and if so it is agreed in advance that there shall be created a commonwealth of the United Kingdom.England would succeed to the UN and international bodies as the original member state, independent states would become members of the commonwealth of nations and in currency Union and customs union with the Pound.The commonwealth of the UK shall guarantee free movement of people’s between its member states for citizens.This means a citizen of England could migrate by right to Scotland and become a EU citizen again while in residency.

This English citizen residence in Scotland would need to establish a passport to migrate to the EU.  EU citizens would need to spend time in Scotland long enough for citizenship** to have the right to migrate to England.**The Commonwealth of the UK would recognize that all of its citizens are dual nationals of its members.A EU citizen in residence in Scotland would need to become a citizen to migrate to England or use the English visa border control

The EU under article 50 would guarantee that free movement of goods and services across the commonwealth borders would enjoy special statuses with EU trade but direct trade to and from England and the EU is subject to WTO and other trade agreements.

Gibraltar shall be allowed to hold a referendum to its future status as to the Commonwealth of the United kingdom and the EU shall under article 50 agree to this.The ballot for Gibraltar shall give the option of continued EU membership by joining with Scotland or Northern Ireland.


Tunnel arbitrage shared funding of BART Muni rail

In the beginning when the Voters Approved the BART system the city of San Francisco was gifted with the MUNI system sharing stations along Market street.BART’s gift was the tunneling costs.The time might be to consider again sharing tunneling costs to encourage an early deployment of a Second BART tube.Both MUNI and BART have studied a Geary street tunnel and it is this that speaks for a joint tunnel study.The systems would not share tracks of course but would share tunnel costs of a two level tunnel.What to study?

(A)(1) BART and MUNI share a two level tunnel out to ocean beach and share stations but in most cases BART trains would expressed by many stations without stopping.Software shared by both BART and MUNI could monitor this and alter the stops made by both MUNI and BART to accommodate traffic levels on both in real time.

(A)(2) BART or MUNI does not run all the way out to Ocean Beach and shared two level tunnel ends.Or two level tunnel continues a way South  but this would require a MUNI Geary tunnel sharing a tunnel with another MUNI line heading south.However BART out to Ocean Beach could allow MUNI to run trains through Geary tunnel that serve two different lines but not likely during busy periods.

(A)(3) No recent BART or MUNI studies discuss using the Bay Bridge instead of a tunnel.High speed rail tunnel sharing with BART or MUNI has not been studied although I have discussed it in earlier posts regarding sharing a two level tunnel under San Jose.


(B)(1) A two level tunnel like Market street MUNI/BART would cost more to dig(?) Shared stations would as well so there must be a financing / ridership synergy.Ridership synergies are elusive but financing tunnels between agencies I think might be the opportunity we seek.Agencies could owe one another for costs and capitalized over time; example agency 1 gains the most from ridership of a BART/MUNI Geary tunnel so agency 1 pays for or borrows say 75% of the tunnel costs.Agency 2 with less ridership pays the percentage down to 50% in later years.This is Tunnel arbitrage !



An architecture for the SLS/Lunar first Fanboys & Girls

This architecture is inspired by the following FISO Texas presentation   Lunar orbits .The SLS could be best used if a serially produced payload manufactured from the SLS’s own production machinery was that payload.

This idea is put forth by the advocates of a SLS derived space station the skylab-II.Skylab was manufactured from Saturn V tanks so the proposed skylab-II would be manufactured from  SLS Hydrogen tanks. FISO Texas Skylab-II presentation My thoughts are that SLS could place multiple Skylab-II in some of the lunar orbits studied in the lunar orbit study.Earth Moon Lagrange points(EML-2) DRO (distant lunar retrograde) and the report argues for the NRO orbit or Lunar rectilinear orbit.The Orion has limits to its range as far as propellent and weight go so DRO to Lunar South Pole base are with in its range of capability.

Jon Goff’s views on the same FISO presentation lunar orbital options NRO VS EML-2

I did not know of  these Lunar retinguler lunar orbits until last week’s FISO so I learn something new! Jon Goff helps explain it better than I can however Jon helps me ask better questions.I believe the FISO paper discusses lunar gravity transfers between NRO and EML-2 but not much detail.To build on Jons views the existence of Skylab-II and Bigelow cyclers might solve human crew mission duration problems.






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